Let’s continue with the Principles of Animation … let’s see how to handle with “Squash & Stretcht”!
(In the Lesson I used the “Eleven Rig”)
Let’s continue with the Principles of Animation … let’s see how to handle with “Squash & Stretcht”!
(In the Lesson I used the “Eleven Rig”)
Let’s continue with the Principles of Animation … let’s see how to smooth our animation with “Slow In & Slow Out”! 😉
(In the lesson I used the rig “Pete” by Long Winter Members)
Slow In & Slow Out RECAP
The Slow In and Slow Out principle or Ease In and Ease Out is so important but also really easy to understand and put in practice!
The concept is:
an object doesn’t have a constant speed during a movement. It will have an acceleration at the beginning and a deceleration at the end
So, will starts slower, SLOW IN, increase the speed in between, and ends slower before to stop SLOW OUT
To add a Slow in and Slow out to a movement we need to change the spacing of the in-betweens at the start and the end
If we have an object that moves from A to B and the tangent is linear, so we don’t’ have any variation in the speed, we would have a stiff and mechanical movement
But…if we have the same movement, but we just change the position of the in-betweens near the first key pose and the last one, the movement result more soft, smoothed, and realistic
Always remember that we are doing cartoon, so to have a more appealing animation, we can also exaggerate this principle!
This doesn’t mean that you have to encrase the timing of your animation to have more in-betweens at the start and the end. It’s always based on the speed of your action. In a faster action you will have few frames but you still can manage them in order to have a slow in and slow out
Changing the curve in the Graph Editor is very easy to achieve the result we need, using a FLAT tangents we already have a smoothness on the extremes
if we use the SPLINE tangents we can reach the same result using the handles
We can also add an in-between near the first pose, and an other near the final pose, and move them on a value closer to the extremes, until you don’t reach your desiderata effect
When you adjust the handles don’t create this type of curve, where it goes on a higher (or lower) value compared to the last pose value otherwise you will have a backward and forward movement. So, if you just want to smooth the forward movement, the curve should be like this one below
look how smoothed is the movement on the two extremes. SLOW FAST SLOW
with the same key poses and timing, but with a different spacing, we would have a linear movement, that is really unrealistic
As you can see in the graph editor , I created a Loop animation so I have the two poses at the beginning and the end with the same position, and an other extreme in the middle with the pendulum in the opposite direction, in this case the tangent is LINEAR, that’s why we have this stiff effect, the interpolation has a uniform velocity, so all the in-betweens have the same distance between each other
…just switching the same curve in FLAT, the spacing of the in-between change and the movement is more realistic
If we create the same movement with a character, the principle doesn’t change, we will always have a movement that start slow, takes speed and slow down again
So … use this principle, with all its variations, for your objects and characters animations! It’s easy and quick to achieve and your animations will change a lot! 😉
Here a different way to render your character! Are you a fan of 2D style? A Toon Shader is an alternative choice! 😉
To create a Toon Shader you just have to select the geometry, go in the TOON Tab
here you will find different TOON style, I usually use SHADED BRIGHTNESS TWO TONE
after you click on one of the options, go in the ATTRIBUTE EDITOR and edit the two colors in the COLOR TAB
one lighter, one darker
That’s is! 🙂 But…
When you start your animation, I always suggest to create a BLOCKING first!
Set your tangents in STEPPED mode, in order to have a Pose to Pose, with no interpolation between keys!
In this simple example, the Timing and the Rhythm of the shot is too boring…It’s not interesting… all the keyposes, the mains action, have the same speed and a regular timing!
Add variations in the intensity and speed of any actions helps you to have a more interesting shot!
In a Blocking phase is really easy to adjust timing and spacing just moving your keyposes, change them or add some new breakdowns!
In this new version, the Rhythm is much more interesting!I added this variations: different spacing and intensity for each actions, more breakdowns, some anticipations, some exaggeration…and now also the mood of the character is more clear!
Learn how to animate a Character Turn in two different Timing, Fast and Slow! 🙂
This tutorial is connected to the Lesson 05 where I explain the principles of TIMING and SPACING!
In this Tutorial I used this lovely Rig “Alya” by Eyad Hussein https://eyad.tv/home/ It’s really a great rig and I suggest you to check it when will be availabe (you have to wait the first quarter of 2017 :P). But you can fill the pre-registration form on this link and you will receive an email once the rig is ready for download https://eyad.tv/home/alya_pre_registr…
After the tutorial I suggest you do do the Exercise#2 “Animate a Character Turn”
Charater Turn Tutorial RECAP
Let’s see how to animate two different turns of a character:
The first Turn we are going to do is the:
We start setting the two key poses. In the first one she looks on the left screen, and in the last one she looks on the right, with a surprised expression.
The idea is that she suddenly hears something coming from the right screen. So, the movement will be pretty fast: 10 Frames
The software create the interpolation between this two poses
and the result is a linear movement that is really far from the result we want
let’s add an in-between two frames after the first pose, at frame 3
the position of the head is pretty close to the first one, so we slow down the spacing!
To slow down the head rotation, go in the graph editor, select the head rotation axis and drag down the key at frame 3, so that we have less change in position between frame 1 and frame 3
So, REMEMBER THAT: in the part where we have a SLOW SPACING we have less change in position, the movement is slower and the curve is almost flat, where we have a FAST SPACING we have more change, the movement is faster and the curve go down, or go up, depends on the axis movement!
so, in the In-between at frame 3 the head is still rotated on the left, we have a little downward translation of the chest, the shoulders rotate a bit upwards and the eyes open a bit! JUST A BIT!! 😀
Let’s add a breakdown at frame 5
the chest continue to go down (just a bit)
and we speed up the spacing of the head rotation. It starts to rotate on the right
and we also add a little squash of the head. So the head volume deforms a bit, decreasing in height and increasing in width
between frame 3 and frame 5 we have the change of the look direction, it moves from left to right
and we shouldn’t use more then 2 frames, otherwise we would have a floating look result and the characters would result totally lifeless!
So at frame 3 we still have the same look position of frame 1, but at frame 5 we already have the same look position of the last pose
So, at frame 5 we move the look manually on the right
This movement must to be really fast and two frames is even too much, so let’s go at frame 4 and we move it a bit more on the right
So the big movement happens between frame 3 and frame 4, and at frame 5 we have a bit adjustment
Let’s reduce the spacing in the end! We add an in-between at frame 8, where the head almost reached the final position
To slow down the movement we do as before, in the graph editor, we move the key more close to the last one so the curve is almost flat
Last, we add a MOVING HOLD, approximately 10/12 frames after the last pose. We just smooth the movement: the head, the chest, and the eyes continues to move just a bit, just enough to don’t result that the body freezes
Now you can also add some details and overlap, like the hairs animation or a blink in the breakdown!
Let’s now do the:Like the other one we start setting the two key poses. For this slow turn let’s imagine for example that she’s just looking around. On the first key she looks on the left screen, now in a much more relaxed expression, and in the last key, she’s turned on the right screen. The movement now it’s slower, 30 Frames
The software create the interpolation between this two poses
and we have this LINEAR movement
Let’s add a breakdown approximately more close to the first key, at frame 12
on this breakdown the head is still rotated on the left screen, we have a small translation downward and a bit of squash of the head, we add an half blink, so we translate downward the upper lids and the eyebrows, and just a bit the bottom lids up
we add an in-between around frame 20. We slow down the spacing, at this point the head almost reached the final position
we add an other in-between just after the first key pose, at frame 5
here the change is really imperceptible, the head almost doesn’t move, it just have a tiny translation downward, also the upper lids and the eyebrows moves upward just a little bit
So…the main head turn happens between frame 12 and frame 20!
Between frame 14 and frame 16 we change the eye look direction, in this three frames (at frame 15 the eyes almost reached the position of frame 16)!
And after that… we add the moving hold at the end
and some hair animation!
Learn how to create the aimation of a Bouncing Ball just following this quick and easy tutorial, in the first part I also show how to create a simple rig for the ball! 😉
This tutorial is connected to the Lesson 05 where I explain the principles of TIMING and SPACING!
After the tutorial I suggest you do do the Exercise#1 “How to create a Bouncing Ball”
Let’s start with the Front view. We pose the ball in the air at frame 1 (approximatly 10 units on Y)at frame 13 tha ball go back on the ground so we put at zero the Y translation in the channel box. Let’s take this line of the grid as reference for the ground. -As I said in the Lesson 5,any bounce lose speed and force so the timing slow down at any bounce so do the high of the bounce-
So for the second bounce we slow down the timing and the ball will bounce in 10 frames instead of 12. So we go at frame 23 and we put the ball in the air again, but this time we reduce the height of the bounce! To be more precise, look at the value on Y of the first bounce. and reduce it a bit: the first bounce is height 10 units, so let’s put the second one 3 units less compared to the first one, so… at 7 units.
Then we put the other key, where the ball go down again, with the same amount of frame it use to go up, “10 frames”, so we go at frame 33 and we put the value of Y at zero.
We do the same for other 5/6 bounces. Always decreasing in height and timing.
This is a reference for the consecutive bounces:
This is just an example:
1st bounce 12 frames – 10 height
2nd bounce 10 frames (+ 10 to go on the ground) / 7 height
2nd bounce3rd bounce 8 frames (+ 8 to go on the ground) / 5 height
4th bounce 6 frames (+ 6 to go on the ground) / 3 height
5th bounce 4 frames (+ 4 to go on the ground) / 1 height
6th bounce 3 frames (+ 3 to go on the ground) / 0.5 height
7th bounce 2 frames (+ 2 to go on the ground) / 0.2 height
4th bounce 1 frames (+ 1 to go on the ground) / 0.07 height
Now we have all the bounces in LINEARso we need to open the graph editor and polish the curves!
In the graph editor we select the translation of the Y axis, and if you set the curves in AUTO TANGENTS or FLAT TANGENTS you can see that all the curves are smoothed, when the ball is in the air and also when it touches the ground.
But we need to change this spacing, ’cause as I said in the Lesson 05, when the ball is in the air we have a SLOW SPACING (due to the combination of the gravity force/ the air resistance/ and the speed upward of the ball), but…when the ball is pushed to the ground and when it lift from the ground, we need to have a FAST SPACING
So, the first thing to do is to select all the keys where the ball is contact with the ground (all the lower keys)
and we switch the curves in Linear
You can see now that during the contact the curves are straight so the movement is faster
At this point we still need to adjust the curve before and after the contact, so we use the handles. But… if we select one handle and we try to move it, you can see that they move together…
So… we select again all the keys on the ground,and we click on the icon “BREAK TANGENTS”
in this way we split the two handles and we can move them separately
Now we can move them one at the time and we don’t have any influence on the other handle. So, let’s go to adjust the curve: we move them in order to have the part close to the contact much fast and slower the part in the air. The result we should have is this type of ARC
Can you see the difference…just changing the Spacing?
Let’s now add the SQUASH and STRETCH!
As I already said also the Squash and Stretch decrease at any bounces, so in the first bounce we have a visible squash and stretch..in the last bounces the ball doesn’t deform it’s volume anymore.
We select the deformer, and we go to animate the Factor attribute on the right in the INPUTS
let’s set a key at any bounce, in the lower and highest positions
At frame 13 we squash the ball decreasing the Factor value
One frame before the contact, at frame 12, we stretch the ball, increasing the Factor value
and we do the same one frame after the contact, frame 14
Now we open the graph editor and we select the deformer factor
We slow down the spacing of the stretch when the ball is in the air, so… the ball deforms when is close to the ground but quickly go back to its original shape when is in the air. We add two keys on the curve, one after the stretch and an other before the stretch: we click on the ADD KEY icon, we select the curve and with “central” click we add the keys
we move them down, close to the original size, without the stretch
And we do the same for 3/4 bounces, the deformation is each time smaller.
Ok, now we can add the forward movement.
We set a key at frame 1 and an other key at the end of the shot, at frame 90
At frame 1 we move the ball on the left screen, just out of the frame
and on frame 90 move it on the right screen
Let’s go in the graph editor and we select the axis with the forward movement. The curve is Linear at the beginning, and Flat at the end
we add an other key around frame 80
move this key on a value more close to the last one
So now the movement start fast and slow down at the end!
Now we just need to adjust the rotation of the ball during the stretch, because if you look at the ball during the squash and stretch you can see that righ now, when the ball stretch, doesn’t follow the Arc path, is straight but should bend on right and left
We can adjust the rotation using the deformer.
We select the deformer and we set a key on the rotation of the deformer on any bounce, in the contacts and in the highest positions. For all the bounces where we have the squash and stretch!
and then we just rotate a bit the deformers on the key before the contact and on the key after the contact
The secret of animation is enclosed in the Principles of Animation!
That you will have to learn, understand and well “impress” in your mind if you want to became a good animator! 😉
but let’s quickly see “how animation works” first. The first thing you should understand is that animation is composed by:
A timeline (the series of frames that compose each seconds, sequenced over the time)
On this frames we create some KEYS (the poses that we create and impress in the timeline, in the software are represented by the red stick)
we start setting the KEY POSES, the most important and stronger poses that describe the action (in case you are doing an Acting animation) or the EXTREME KEYS (in case we are doing an action or something connected to body mechanic like a walk cycle) this are the pose at the start and the end, or the extreme lower and higher position, or the forward and backward.
Between the Key poses (or the extremes) the software will create an automatic linear interpolation, too avoid a mechanic and linear movement we add some BREAKDOWN KEYS approximately in the middle of the 2 key poses, and can be called also Passing Positions cause are the poses that we have during the movement from A to B, “how we reach position B from position A”. After the breakdown, we go to create some IN-BETWEENS KEYS (it’s not necessary to have a key on each frames, but just the strictly necessary to have a nice movement). With the in-betweens we take control of the interpolation created by the software: adjusting positions, spacing, arcs and so on.
Clear? 🙂 Let’s sum it again:
Ok! Let’s see all the Principles of Animation, that were showed in the amazing book “Illusion of life” by two Disney Animators in 1981:
Let’s start …!
The TIMING is the speed and the rhythm of your animation, it change depending on where you set the Extreme Poses.
MORE FRAMES: slower movement
LESS FRAMES: faster movement
The SPACING is the variation of the speed during the change of position
SLOW SPACING: less change in position
FAST SPACING: more change
SLOW-IN & SLOW-OUT are used to soften the movement at the start and the end. To make it more fluid and nice to see, we manage the position of the in-betweens, if we move the in-betweens closed to the starting pose, the extreme one, the movement will starts slower, and if we do the same for the in-betweens closed to the final pose, the last extreme, the movement will also ends slower.
A bouncing ball would STRETCH its volume before the contact and would SQUASH when it’s on the ground. During a walk the body chest would squash when the body go down, because of the weight, and would stretch when the body go up. In facial, when a character close his eyes (especially during a big change of expression) it would squash the head when the eyes are closed, and would stretch for few frames when it open the eyes again.
The ANTICIPATION is used to make a movement more readable or to create a more cartoon funny effects, it’s a movement that happens before the main one, usually in the opposite direction.
If the object moves forward, we add a backward movement 3 or 4 frames before.
If we are animating a character turning from right to left and the head leads the movement, the rest of the body follow the head. So the head moves first, then the chest, then the arms and so on. This parts FOLLOW the head movement. During this movement we can have different reactions of each parts: before turn on the left, the arms could bend in the opposite direction, OVERLAPPING the ACTION.
To make the action more interesting, or to make the intentions and the emotions of the character more clear, we can use SECONDARY ACTIONS to intensify the general feeling of the animation. During a walk, the main action is the movement of the feet and hip, but we can make the character turning his head looking around or the arms swinging, this are secondary actions.
When we create a pose, we can EXAGGERATE it to make it more appealing, or during a movement we can make it stronger and extreme to emphasize it. NEVER BE AFRAID TO EXAGGERATE! 😀 Always think, is interesting or readable enough? Take inspiration from reality but always add your creativity!
APPEAL MAKES THINGS INTERESTING!
The APPEAL of a character mostly depending on the design and the story, but…we can make it more strong with poses and animation. Emphasize a pose to make the appeal of the character instantly readable!
Any movement we create, follows a path and generate an invisible ARC.
A smoothed, circular arc makes the movement fluid, more realistic and nice to watch. A straight path makes thinghs more mechanic.
When we create a shot, first of all we need to plan what where are going to show and we will try to focus the attention in the correct way, so we need to work on the STAGING. Setting the camera, the character and any other assets in the scene in a way that the main action is clearly readable and with a good rhythm, so that anybody can follow the scene and well understand what’s going on!
There are two way to start an animation: STRAIGHT AHEAD & POSE TO POSE
If you chose for STRAIGHT AHEAD means that you start creating the first pose and you go “straight ahead” up to the last one.If you chose for POSE TO POSE means that you start creating the main poses, the ones necessary to tell the story and better describe the main actions, and in a second time you go to add the other poses, breakdowns and in-betweens.
This was just a quick explanation of the Principles of Animation, in the next lessons I’ll go trough and deeper to explain each of this principles !
So… don’t miss the next lesson: TIMING!
This is the most common question I receive so I decide to make this very fast introduction to the Animation World and guide a bit those who want to work as 3D animator:
Be a Character Animator…is GREAT! I love this job and I wouldn’t change it even if sometimes it makes you angry or frustrating, but all the emotions that this job can give you (whether good or bad) …worth it! 😉
But, any other job, it have his Positive and Negative aspects, so…let’s make a list!
————-Are you still motivated and convinced to go ahead? COOL! Let’s see what’s the first steps to do…
I always suggest Maya! It’s probably the best if you want to do animation and is very used in production companies. (3D MAX maybe is more suited if you want to specialize in Modeling IMO)
TIMING / STAGING / ANTICIPATION / FOLLOW THROUGH / ARCS / EXAGGERATION and so on…
…let it BOUNCE….and bounce………and bounce again…
Lines of actions / Silhouette / Appeal——————————————————————–
DON’T start to do too complex animations before you learned and well understood this principles!——————————————————————–
The process to create a 3D Project (like a movie or a tv shows or a short film…etc…) is classified in 3 different stages:
When a concept, the idea of the project, is approved… we have the permission to move forward. This is a phase called Green Light!
So now we can start with the Pre-Production, this are the main distinct phases:
It’s time to define the design, the aspect of the characters and the environment and props. The concept artists create illustrations and sketches with different design for the characters and everything that need to be defined in terms of design.
In this step the storyboard artist create a visual description of the entire project divided by sequences and scenes.
Let’s see the difference between a SEQUENCE and a SCENE:
A SCENE is a part of the story with a specific camera take, any time the camera framing change we have a new scene! So, until you don’t see a cut in the camera, is the same scenes. A group of scenes compose a SEQUENCE, this sequence takes place in a determinate location and time of the day. When we have a change in the location or time, we have a new sequence, but the number of the scenes is still progressive.
A cast of voice actor dubb the script so that we will have a voice track to use for the production.
The design is approved so we can go forward to create the 3D models.Using a 3D modeling software, the modeler start to literally sculpt the mesh, following the design based on the illustration of the concept artist.
In this phase, a texture artist create the texture, the surface that wll be applied on the character. He create this 2D image, for example with a software like Photoshp), after that, this image will be assign to a material which in turn will be assigned to the mesh.
Once the model are done, the rigger can start to create the skeleton, the rig for the character. He add chains of bones, joints attached to the mesh so that in the Animation phase we will be able to move the character
Thanks to the rig we can select the controls of each part of the body and we can start to pose the character.
The Animators start to test the rig and create some animations, like cycles or acting or expressions test, in this phase is important to choose and set the style of the animation.
Before start the production we need a planning to set the deadlines and the plan that will guide the team during the production. In this way we can decide the time that we will need to finish the project.
The production started!! Let’s see all the main steps of this phase:
Using the storyboard as reference the layout artist create a 3D version of the storyboard. So they start to create all the single shots, setting the camera, import all the characters and the locations that the scenes request and set the length of the scene. Sometimes the layout artist also create a rough blocking with some key poses in order to give to the animators a guide for the actions and type of acting they will must do in the animation stage.
Here we are! Starting from the layout and reading the script and whatching the storyboard to have as much information and inspiration as possible, the animators start to think how to animate the characters: what type of acting, emotions and actions are more appropriate for the shot.
The animation is divided into 2 different steps, BLOCKING and REFINE
During the Blocking step, the animators create some main poses of the characters, so that they can start to set the timing and the expression, the poses and the actions of the characters.
The curves of the blocking keys are create in “stepped” mode, in order to avoid interpolation between a pose and an other. If we play the blocking animation, this appears jerky, not fluid, it’s a pose to pose!
It’s far from the final result but it’s already enough clear to have a first supervision from the Animation Supervisor, cause the intentions, the timing, and the poses are all there, so is also a good way to save time in case we have to change something.
When the Blocking is approved we move to the Refine step. Here we take all the poses curves we created for the blocking and we switch the curves from stepped to “spline”.In this way our animation looks more fluid and we can go to polish the curves and finish our animation.
During all the animation process, the Animation Supervisor receive the shots from the animators and he gives them feedback or retakes (request of changes) for the shot and he has the last decision over the animations.
We need to place the lights in the shots. The lighting artist will do that. He will decide the illumination of the scene, the lights properties, the shadows and so on. Always keeping consistency between a shot and the others.
The last process of the production. The render artist will convert the three dimensional data into a hight quality 2D images. So he go to create sequences of bidimensional images, based on the shots we crated so far, with textures, lights, shadings and the characters set in the highest quality.
The last process, the Post-Production, it’s finalized to take togheter what we have done in the production and, basically, edit, cut, add effects, adjust everything for the final export.
This are the phases:
Using a compositing software, the compositors takes all the renders, he combines them together and starts to adjust colors, lights, adding vfx in order to deliver optimized final images of the project.
Now the editor proceed to finalized the editing of the project, adjusting the length of the shots, cutting scenes depending on the request of the director, adding fade effects and so on.
The same for this process: the sound designer fixes, adjusts, adds, and edits the audio, music and sound fx.
Now the project is done, everything is finished with the approval of the directors and producers, and we can export the final project!
Quick introduction to the animation world! I will quickly explain what’s the role of an animator and the different animation techniques!
Be a Character Animator means…BRING TO LIFE a fictional characterI always says that…as animators we moves and lets speak these characters, in practice, we control their movements like “actors” and… in this way we create the…an example of an Animation (on the left) and a totally Mechanic/Lifeless one (on the right). Can you see the difference? If you do, you are on the good way… 😉
let’s see the main differences:
create asymmetric expression to give more appeal!
and don’t forget to smooth any movement with soft lines!
I drew a lot but, I can’t say that I’m a good drawer…
So, we must dispel this fake myth.
Is composed by sequences of hand drawings created on a series of pages . All the drawings are made on an Animation Desk or Light Table!
A light table has a translucent surface illuminated from behind with a light collocated into the table, on this surface you put the sequence of papers: when you draw the animations, thanks to the light inside the desk, you can see in transparence the drawings on the previous and following pages.
An animation is composed by a sequence of frames, each frame is represented by a drawing.
The Frame rate, the number of frames per second can change depending on the type of project (THIS APPLIES TO ANY TECHNIQUE)
Is the animation of objects created in a three-dimensional space.
Using a 3D Software like Maya or 3D Max, we animate a 3D object.
We start with a mesh, “the Model” that is created by the “Modeler”, on this mesh the “Rigger” will create the skeleton, “the Rig”, the series of bones, joints and the selectable controls that the Animator will use to move the character!
Selecting and moving the controls, we create the motion! 🙂
With this technique we physically move a real objects, a puppet!
Frame by frame we pose the character and we take pictures of it.
The puppet usually has a structure inside, like an iron skeleton, that allow to easily pose him.
Before start…take your time to plan the Run and chose the style.
Follow the design of the character: this can guide you to make your run more appealing and interesting! Be creative!!! 🙂
Decide the Speed of your run, make some test during the blocking to find the best speed!
When you calculate the length of the shot consider that you have to sum the tow step, plus one frame at the end that is just a duplicate of the first one, so:
Start the Blocking with the main poses:
1- Straight Leg (sx foot) the leading leg is straight forward but doesn’t touch the ground yet. The right leg is behind in the air.
3- Down translate down the COG, the left leg is flat on the ground and starts to slide backward. The right leg start to pass forward.
5- Push Translate Up the body, the left leg is behind, bend the foot that is close to leave the ground. The right leg is almost in front.
8- Up Push a bit more Up the body. The left leg is behind in the air and the right leg is pretty high in the air, bended, in front of the character.
Speed UP the Spacing between the Straight Leg pose and the Down pose, then Slow Down between the Push and the following Straight Leg pose, the result will be a sort of “pause” in the air, and the run will result more snappy and cartoon.
Bend the feet and the Toes
Keep attention to the arcs of the feet (use motion trail if necessary)!!!
Here’s the final Curves of the foot on Z:
Here’s the final Curves of the UP and Down of the COG and the Chest Refine:
Here’s the main Curves for Feet / COG / Hip / Chest, showed in the Graph Editor,
based on the “Walk Cycle” I posted in the previous Tutorial ( Walk Cycle Tutorial)
you can change the display mode of your objects in the scene pressing 1,2,3,4,5,6, or 7 on your keyboard. (You can also change it from the menu
here the keyboard shortcuts to translate, rotate and zoom in your scene: